阅读策略-CET4阅读理解熟词僻义指津

时间:2022-1-4 作者:爱思英语网

考生在做CET阅读理解题时常常碰上一些特殊词语,虽然似曾相识,但却不了解其在特定语境中的确切含义,如此总是会干扰到发挥。这部分熟知的词语在特定文字中的取义,总是成为语句结构的枢纽,意义重大,可以帮考生把握作者的思想意图,是解题的重要所在。

任何应试方法都是基于多年标准化考试的理性剖析和科学概要,所得到的经验和解题规则。因此笔者剖析了近期几年CET4阅读考试题目中出现过的熟词僻义现象,以期考生能有所借鉴。

anchor

【容易见到词义】锚;抛锚,泊船

【典型释义】固定,系牢

【真题举例】To further protect the house from hurricane damage, Huff raised it 2.7 meters off the ground on timber pilings —— long, slender columns of wood anchored deep in the sand. (2003.12 Passage Four) 为了更好地防御飓风的袭击,赫夫用木桩——长而细的木柱子深深地扎入沙土中,使房屋离地2.7米。

【举一反三】The manager’s attention anchored on Tom. 经理注视着汤姆。

back

【容易见到词义】后面;后背

【典型释义】支持

【真题举例】So what your association is backing is a program which would allow the middle and upper classes to acquire a bomb while poor people will be left defenseless with just handguns. (2004.6 Passage Two) 所以你们协会支持的是一个只允许中产阶级以上的人群拥有氢弹的计划,而没钱人则被置于只有手枪的无防御能力的境地。

【举一反三】The bank refused to back this project. 银行拒绝支持这个项目。

brand

【容易见到词义】商标;打烙印

【典型释义】(不公正地)指责,败坏

【真题举例】In fact, anyone who would challenge another’s opinion is likely to be branded intolerant. (2003.9 Passage Four) 事实上,其他人对他人的看法提出质疑,就可能被视为不够宽容。

【举一反三】It’s unfair to brand all football fans as troublemakers. 把所有些球迷都当成闹事者是不公平的。

edge

【容易见到词义】刀刃,刀口

【典型释义】优势

【真题举例】A second language isn’t generally required to get a job in business, but having language skills gives a candidate the edge when other qualifications appear to be equal. (2002.12 Passage Three) 第二语言并非在商业范围找到工作的必要条件,但在其他条件相同的状况下,竞聘者的语言技术便是他获胜的优势。

【举一反三】She has the edge on the other students because she spent a year in England. 她比其他学生有优势,由于她在英国呆了一年。

head

【容易见到词义】头;领导

【典型释义】主管,负责

【真题举例】“Children are affected by the same time crunch that affects their parents,” says Sandra Hofferth, who headed the recent study of children’s timetable. (2003.6 Passage One) “影响爸爸妈妈的时间危机同样也影响着小孩们,”近期对儿童作息时间表做调查的项目负责人Sandra Hofferth 如是说。

【举一反三】Who heads the English department? 哪个负责英语系?

in

【容易见到词义】在……里;在……内

【典型释义】时尚的,时髦的

【真题举例】For an increasing number of students at American universities, Old is suddenly in. (2002.1 Passage Three) 对于愈加多的美国大学生来讲,老年学忽然时尚起来了。

【举一反三】Strawberries are not in now, so it sells expensive. 目前草莓不当季,所以卖的贵。

iron

【容易见到词义】铁

【典型释义】熨平,熨烫

【真题举例】Iron a fine-patterned tablecloth? (2003.12 Passage Three) 把精美的桌布熨一下?

【举一反三】Damp clothes iron easily. 湿衣服好烫平。

issue

【容易见到词义】重大的议题,论点

【典型释义】(正式)发给,供给

【真题举例】“The basic issue,” he says, “is that adults who are responsible for issuing licenses fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is.” (2003.9 Passage One) 他说,根本问题是那些负责颁发执照的成年人没认识到驾驶是一项多么复杂而且颇具方法性的任务啊。

【举一反三】New shares are issued every week. 每周都在发行新股票。

lead

【容易见到词义】引导,领路

【典型释义】铅

【真题举例】Lead deposits, which accumulated in soil and snow during the 1960’s and 70’s, were primarily the result of leaded gasoline emissions originating in the United States. (2005.1 Passage Three) 20世纪60年代和70年代土壤和积雪中的铅沉积主如果美国含铅汽油排放导致的。

【举一反三】This water-pipe is made of lead. 这根水管是铅制的。

lift

【容易见到词义】举起,抬起

【典型释义】免费搭车;搭便车

【真题举例】A recent study, published in last week’s Journal of the American Medical Association, offers a picture of how risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver. (2003.9 Passage One) 上周美国医学协会期刊所刊登的一项最新研究表明,搭乘十多大岁数少年的车何等危险。

【举一反三】Can you give me a lift? 你能搭我一程吗?

log

【容易见到词义】原木,木料

【典型释义】记录,记载

【真题举例】Involvement in sports, in particular, rose almost 50% from 1981 to 1997: boys now spend an average of four hours a week playing sports; girls log half that time. (2003.6 Passage One) 尤其是参与体育活动的时间,从1981年到1997年几乎增长了50%:目前男生平均每周花4小时运动,女生的运动时间是女生的一半。

【举一反三】From what was logged, the accident took place at midnight. 从记录来看,事故发生在午夜。

monitor

【容易见到词义】班长

【典型释义】检查;调查;监视

【真题举例】Chains such as KFC, McDonald’s and Pizza Hut are setting a new standard of customer service, using strict employee training and constant monitoring to ensure the friendliness of frontline staff. (2002.12 Passage Four) 像肯德基、麦当劳和必胜客等连锁店拟定了新的客户服务标准,用更严格的职员培训和常常性的监督来确保一线员工的朋友式的服务。

So biologists were delighted early this year when, with the help of the Navy, they were able to track a particular blue for 43 days, monitoring its sounds. (2002.6 Passage Three) 今年早些时候,生物学家们特别高兴。由于在海军的帮忙下,通过监测蓝鲸的声音,他们可以跟踪一条蓝鲸长达四十三天。

【举一反三】The computer will then monitor all of the car’s movements. (2002.1 Passage One) 然后计算机将监控汽车的所有情况。

practically

【容易见到词义】事实上,实质上

【典型释义】几乎,差不多

【真题举例】While any of these statements might be true, they are practically impossible to prove scientifically. (2003.12 Passage One) 即便这部分断言可能正确,它们也几乎不可能从科学上得到证实。

【举一反三】It’s practically impossible to finish the task in an hour. 在一小时内完成这项任务是几乎不可能的。

shed

【容易见到词义】棚屋;流出

【典型释义】去除

【真题举例】The Centers for Disease Control, for example, found that fewer than one-fourth of overweight adults who were trying to shed pounds said they were combining exercise with their diet. (2005.1 Passage Four) 比如:疾病控制中心发现不足四分之一的试图减肥的超重成年人说,他们正在把运动和饮食结合起来。

【举一反三】shed a bad habit 改掉不好的习惯

span

【容易见到词义】一段时间

【典型释义】横跨,跨越

【真题举例】This was possible because of the Navy’s formerly top-secret system of underwater listening devices spanning the oceans. (2002.6 Passage Three) 这之所以成为可能,是由于海军以前绝密的海底监听系统横跨了海洋。

【举一反三】A bridge spans the Yangtzi River. 一桥横跨长江。

spark

【容易见到词义】火花,火星

【典型释义】引发,触发

【真题举例】Medical tests shows that the child wasn’t the Twiggs’ own daughter, but Kimberly was, thus sparking a custody battle with Robert Mays. (2003.6 Passage Four) 医学检查显示小孩不是Twigg家的女儿,而Kimberly 却是,于是,引发了Twigg家与Robert Mays 争夺监护权的官司。

【举一反三】The meeting sparked off a friendship between them. 这次会面引发了他们间的友谊。

spell

【容易见到词义】拼写

【典型释义】招致

【真题举例】Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu may make a difference in how long the misery lasts. (2005.1 Passage One) 嗓子疼、鼻子不通和浑身酸痛都会带来痛苦,但可以辨别其起因是一般感冒还是流感,对于这种痛苦持续的时间长短会有着要紧的意义。

【举一反三】For makers of fine china in Britain, it spells economic hard times. (2003.12 Passage Three) 对于英国的精美瓷器制作者来讲,它致使了经济上的艰难时期。

station

【容易见到词义】车站

【典型释义】驻扎,派驻

【真题举例】The executive stationed in another country no longer need fear being “out of sight and out of mind.” (2002.12 Passage Three) 派驻在另一国家的管理职员不需要再担忧看不到或被忘却了。

【举一反三】Guards were stationed around the prison. 监狱周围驻扎着警卫。

sure

【容易见到词义】有把握的;肯定的

【典型释义】靠谱的,确切的

【真题举例】A sure test for would-be heroes is what or whom do they serve? (2002.12 Passage One) 对于准英雄们靠谱的检验是:他们为何或为哪个服务?

【举一反三】Please put this bag in a sure place. 请把这个包放在稳妥的地方。

tell

【容易见到词义】告诉,命令

【典型释义】确切地判断,分辨

【真题举例】The ALA notes that it may be particularly difficult to tell when infants and preschool age children have the flu. (2005.1 Passage One) 美国呼吸科协会指出,当婴儿和学龄前儿童患流感时,可能会特别难以区别。

【举一反三】I can’t tell them apart. 我分不清他们。

wake

【容易见到词义】醒来;唤醒

【典型释义】随后

【真题举例】In Hugo’s wake, all new shoreline houses are required to meet stricter, better-enforced codes. (2003.12 Passage Three) “雨果”袭击将来,所有新建在海岸线上的房屋都需要按愈加严格的规范建造。

【举一反三】Hunger and disease followed in the wake of the war. 战争过后,饥荒和疾病随之而来。

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