旅游英语:巴比伦空中花园

时间:2022-1-12 作者:旺旺英语学习网

tier on tier…On all this, the earth had been piled…and was thickly planted with trees of every kind that, by their great size and other charm, gave pleasure to the beholder…The water machines(raised) the water in great abundance from the river, although no one outside could see it. ——Diodorus Siculus

ruits and flowers… Waterfalls… Gardens hanging from the palace terraces… Exotic animals…This is the picture of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon in most people’s minds.It may be surprising to know that they might have never existed except in the minds of Greek poets and historians!

Location

On the east bank of the River Euphrates, about 50 km south of Baghdad, Iraq.

History

The Babylonian kingdom flourished under the rule of the famous King, Hammurabi[2] (1792-1750 BC[3]).It was not until[4] the reign of the Neo-Babylonian dynasty that the Mesopotamian [5] civilization reached its ultimate glory.Nebuchadnezzar II[6] (604-562 BC) is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens.It is said that the Gardens were built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his wife or concubinewho had been "brought up in Media[7] and had a passion for mountain surroundings".

While the most descriptive accounts of the Gardens come from Greek historians such as Berossus and Diodorus Siculus,Babylonian records stay silent on the matter.Tablets from the time of Nebuchadnezzar do not have a single reference to the Hanging Gardens,although descriptions of his palace, the city of Babylon, and the walls are found.Even the historians who give detailed descriptions of the Hanging Gardens never saw them.Modern historians argue that when Alexander[8] ‘s soldiers reached the fertile land of Mesopotamia and saw Babylon, they were impressed.When they later returned to their rugged homeland, they had stories to tell about the amazing gardens and palm trees at Mesopotamia…About the palace of Nebuchadnezzar… About the Tower of Babel[9] and the ziggurats.And it was the imagination of poets and ancient historians that blended all these elements together to produce one of the World Wonders.

It wasn’t until the twentieth century that some of the mysteries surrounding the Hanging Gardens were revealed.Archaeologists are still struggling to gather enough evidence before reaching the final conclusions about the location of the Gardens, their irrigation system, and their true appearance.

注释:

1.Babylon:古时候西亚两河流域的最大城市,古巴比伦王国与新巴比伦王国的首都。坐落于幼发拉底河中游,距今巴格达南约89公里。“空中花园”坐落于新巴比伦王国的都城中。

2.Hammurabi:汉谟拉比(公元前1792~1750)古巴比伦王国第六代国王。他在位其间,重新统一了两河流域。实行中央集权统治,兴修水利,进步经济。颁布有名的《汉谟拉比法典》。

3.BC:BC是“公元前”、AD是“公元后”。你知晓为何有公元前和公元后之分吗?其实公元记年是由后来的一位常识渊博的大主教创造的,以基督(Christ)的出生为分界线来划分。BC 就是Before Christ;而AD来自拉丁文anno Domini(=Since Christ was born)。

4.It was not until…:这个句子看着挺被人迷惑,其实这是…not …unitil…(直到……才……)的强调句型。It is …that…是英语的情调句型。譬如:It’s man that counts.(源于《实用英语语法》)起用途的是人。强调…not …unitil…时,是把not和 until引导的从句放在that 前。

5.Mesopotamian:美索不达米亚,西亚一古区域,地处幼发拉底河和底格里斯河之间,是世界文明发祥地之一。公元前4000年苏美尔人在南美索不达尼亚打造起世界最早的文明,约公元前2340年,阿卡帝国初次兴起,此后巴比伦和亚述两帝国相继崛起。

6.NebuPage: 1 chadnezzar II:尼布甲尼撒二世(前605~前562),新巴比伦王国国王。即位后,大举进攻腓尼基和巴勒斯坦,与埃及争夺权势范围。公元前586年攻陷耶路撒冷,灭犹太王国,俘虏大量犹太居民。前567年远征埃及,并掠夺很多财富,是为新巴比伦王国鼎盛时期。

7.Media:米底,西亚古国,在今伊朗西部和阿塞拜疆东部区域。

8.lexander the Great:亚历山大大帝(前356~前323)马其顿国王。前334年以无敌之师大举东进,入小亚细亚,转埃及,打造亚历山大城,挺进两河流域,入侵中亚细亚,南下印度。后因气候不适,士兵厌战而退兵巴比伦。前324年,打造了以亚历山大城为中心的东起印度河、西至尼罗河与巴尔干半岛范围的古时候大帝国——亚历山大帝国。

9.the Tower of Babel:巴别塔,据《圣经·旧约》,诺亚在巴比伦的子孙想建造一座“塔顶通天”的塔以扬名,同时反抗上帝。上帝便变乱他们原来统一的语言,使之互不相通,结果塔未能建成,而人类分散到世界各地。

巴比伦的空中花园

通往花园的道路象山坡一样倾斜着,建筑物的几个部分一层一层地向上交错排列着……泥土在这部分上面堆积着……并且浓密地种植着各种各样的树木,它们以其巨大的身躯和其他一些魔力,令观赏者赏心悦目……抽水的机器把很多的水从河中(提高到)上面,尽管无人从外面能看到它。 ——Diodorus Siculus

水果与鲜花……、瀑布……、花园高悬在宫殿的阳台上……、奇异的动物……,这是大部分人想象中的巴比伦空中花园。被人吃惊的是空中花园除去在希腊的诗人和历史学家的头脑中出现过外,可能从来就没存在过。

地方:

坐落于幼发拉底河的东岸,距伊拉克的首都巴格达南约50公里。

历史:

古巴比伦王国在著名的国王汉谟拉比(公元前1792~1750)的统治下过去兴盛一时。但直到新巴比伦王朝,美索不达米亚文明才达到了它的鼎盛时期。大家相信传闻中的空中花园是由尼布甲尼撒二世(公元前604年~562年)建造的。据传,尼布甲尼撒为了取悦于其在米底亚长大并对山景怀有深厚感情的王后或者是妃子而建造了空中花园。

虽然对花园最详尽的记述是源于Berossus 和 Diodorus Siculus等希腊历史学家笔下, 但巴比伦的历史记录却对此事只字未提。尽管在尼布甲尼撒时期存留下的各种书写板上发现了对他的宫殿、巴比伦城与巴比伦的城墙的种种描述,但这部分书写板上却没一处提到过空中花园。甚至那些对空中花园进行过详细描述的历史学家们也从没亲眼目睹过它们。现代历史学家争论说:当亚力山大的士兵们到达了富饶的美索不达米亚区域并看到了巴比伦时,他们深为(眼前的美景)所震惊。当他们后来回到崎岖不平的家乡时,带回了有关美索不达米亚的让人惊叹的花园和椰子树……、有关尼布甲尼撒的宫殿……与有关巴别塔和金字型神塔的各种故事。是诗人和古时候历史学家的想象力把这所有些元素混合在一块制造出了世界奇观之一。

直到二十世纪,围绕着空中花园的一些不解之迷才被揭示出来。在得到关于花园的地点、灌溉系统,和真的面目的最后结论之前,考古学家们仍在努力地采集足够的证据。

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