优美的英文文摘

时间:2022-1-14 作者:英语自学网

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鱼儿喝水么?

Do Fish Drink?

鱼儿喝水吗?

Fish do drink water, but how they consume it depends on where they live. Water gets into a fish’s body through osmosis, the process in which water diffuses from a higher to a lower concentration.

鱼儿确实喝水,但它们怎样喝水却取决于其生存的环境。水通过渗透作用进入鱼儿的身体,在这一过程中,水从高浓度的地方扩散至低浓度的地方。

For example, if there is more water outside of a cell than inside, water will try to flow into the cell until there is the same concentration of water on either side of the cell’s membrane. The body of a fish acts the same way, either absorbing or losing water depending on its surroundings.

比方说,如果细胞外的水多于细胞内,水就会流入细胞内,直到细胞膜内外的浓度相同。鱼儿的身体与细胞一样,吸水还是失水取决于它生存的环境。

Whether a fish absorbs or loses water is based on the fact that all fish must maintain a certain amount of salt in their bodies to stay healthy. Fish that live in fresh water have a higher concentration of salt in their bodies than the surrounding water.

不管鱼儿吸水还是失水,事实上,所有的鱼要想保持健康其体内就必须维持一定量的盐分。淡水鱼体内盐的浓度要高于周围的水。

Consequently, water continuously flows into the fish’s body to attempt to dilute the amount of salt in the fish until it is equal to the amount of salt in the surrounding water. Since fish cannot allow their salt content to be diminished, their kidneys work overtime to expel excess water in the form of urine.

因此,水就不断地进入鱼儿的体内以稀释盐份,直到鱼儿体内与外界的盐的浓度持平。因为鱼儿自身无法减少体内的盐分,所以他们的肾就要不断工作以将多余的水以尿液的形式排出体外。

Ocean fish have the opposite problem. Surrounded by salt water, their bodies contain a relatively lower concentration of salt than the ocean water. In this case, osmosis causes the fish to constantly lose water in order to equalize salt concentration inside and outside the fish.

海鱼的问题则恰恰相反。由于被盐水包围,他们体内盐的浓度与海水相比相对较低。在这种情况下,渗透作用使得鱼儿不停地失水以平衡体内外盐的浓度。

To partially compensate for the water loss, ocean fish actually drink water through their mouths. To get rid of the excess salt they take in by drinking seawater, they excrete some salt through cells in their gills.

为了补偿失去的部分水分,海水鱼通常要用嘴喝水。而为了去除喝海水带来的多余盐分,它们会通过腮里的细胞排出一些盐分。

生病的时候为何要多喝水?

Why Do You Become Dehydrated When Sick?

生病的时候为何会脱水?

When you have a cold or flu, the doctor (or Dr. Mom) may tell you to drink lots of fluids. But did they ever explain why you need to guzzle all that water and juice? The extra fluid helps prevent dehydration, which can make you feel even worse, and make it harder to get well. If you have a runny nose, a feverish sweat, or vomiting and diarrhea, it may seem obvious why you’d need to drink more to replace those lost fluids. But these aren’t the only reasons the body needs extra fluid when you’re sick.

当你不幸患了感冒或流感时,医生(或者妈妈)可能会叮嘱你要多喝液体,但他们是否曾解释过为什么你要狂喝水和饮料?额外的液体可以避免脱水,一旦脱水你会感觉更糟,也更难康复。如果你出现流鼻涕、发烧出汗、或者呕吐腹泻等症状,显然你需要多喝液体以弥补身体失去的水分。但这些并非你生病时身体需要多补水的全部原因。

Increasing Metabolism

加快新陈代谢

If you have a fever, that increase in body temperature increases your metabolism–in other words, all the biochemical reactions that keep you alive speed up. A fever of 101 degrees Fahrenheit increases your body’s metabolic rate by about 10%. What difference does that make?

若你发烧,体温的升高将加快你的新陈代谢,换句话说,所有维持生命的生化反应将加速。101华氏度的高烧将使身体的代谢速率增加百分之十。这又有什么分别呢?

Two key ingredients of metabolic reactions are water and oxygen. Increased metabolism uses more water and also makes you breathe faster, to supply the extra oxygen. And guess what? As you breathe faster, you breathe out more moisture, along with more carbon dioxide.

新陈代谢作用的两大主要成分是水和氧。新陈代谢加快需要更多的水,也使你呼吸加快以补充足够的氧。你猜接下来会怎么着?当你呼吸加快,你也将呼出更多的湿气和二氧化碳。

Dehydration

脱水

Even if you don’t have symptoms that cause obvious water loss–like a runny nose, sweating, vomiting or diarrhea–a cold or flu can dehydrate you in hidden ways. Just a slight rise in body temperature requires more water for metabolic reactions and breathing.

即便你没有会引起明显失水的症状,如流鼻涕、出汗、呕吐和腹泻等,感冒或流感却以隐蔽的方式导致你脱水。哪怕是体温一丁点的升高都需要更多的水以维持加快的新陈代谢作用和呼吸。

On top of all that, when you’re sick you just might not feel like eating or drinking as much as usual. That’s why Mom keeps reminding you to drink your fluids!

除此之外,你生病时食欲可能不如平常,这也是妈妈一直提醒你喝水的原因!


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